Van zee naar bord: De Hollandse garnaal

Garnalen

Oké, toegegeven, een beetje toeristisch is het wel, maar dat mag de pret niet drukken. Zojuist hebben we de haven van Oudeschild, Texel verlaten om samen met Frido en Roland garnalen te vissen. Het is nog ochtend en het is een beetje mistig, wat me echt een ‘ik ga vissen op zee’ gevoel geeft.

Garnalen vissen

Een prachtig beroep

Frido, die aan het roer staat, vangt al vanaf z’n vijftiende vis. ‘Mijn opa, vader en ooms waren allemaal vissers en het is een prachtig beroep, alle regeltjes ten spijt. Eerst de netten voorbereiden en dan ook nog wat vangen is natuurlijk super mooi. Als het water wat lager staat, liggen de zandbanken droog en zie je mooie vogels en zeedieren, fantastisch.’

Garnalenvisser

Normaal gesproken blijven de vissers een aantal dagen achter elkaar op zee. In de winter kunnen ze langer op zee blijven omdat de vis dan beter koel blijft op de boot. Garnalen vissen doen ze meestal maar met z’n tweeën. ‘Het mooiste van vissen op de Waddenzee is de zonsondergang. Daarna even lekker wat eten, pitten in de kooi en dan weer verder.’

Garnalen vangen

De TX10 Emmie (een schip uit 1980) vaart inmiddels een stuk uit de kust en de twee netten van 8 meter breed en 16 meter lang zakken naar beneden. De twee blauwe platen worden door de waterdruk uit elkaar geduwd en houden de netten open. ‘De zwarte rollen gaan over de bodem. De garnalen schrikken zich dan het lazerus en die krengen springen zo in de netten. Zo simpel kan het leven zijn. Hopelijk vangen we ook nog wat visjes, een tongetje misschien, wat krabben, zeesterren en wat cd’s van LA The Voices.’ (Ja, Frido houdt wel van een grapje.)

De netten ophalen

Frido vertelt dat ze de afgelopen dagen enorm veel last hebben gehad van zeewier in de netten. ‘Als het water opwarmt groeien de algen sneller. Wanneer de netten daarmee volstromen, moeten we die meteen ophalen.’

De netten

Regeltjes, regeltjes

‘Vroeger werd alle vis alleen tijdens het juiste seizoen gevangen. Door de quotering en maatregelen tegen overbevissing, natuurorganisaties, dat soort dingen, vissen we nu alleen nog maar garnalen. De Hollandse garnaal, de ‘Crangon crangon’ mag onbeperkt worden gevist en dit doen we van de Belgische kust tot aan Denemarken. Je zou dus eigenlijk zeven dagen per week garnalen kunnen vissen. Toch wil je liever wat rust in het gebied, dus tussen het vissen door een paar dagen niet vissen. Dat is het beste voor de natuur en ook wat natuurorganisaties graag van ons willen. Het is alleen een hele rare situatie, want als we dat zouden doen, dan zegt de overheid of de NMA weer dat we aan kartelvorming doen. Het is dus best lastig. Al die regeltjes… En weet je, sinds 1957 meten ze hoeveel vis er in de zee zit en sinds ’57 is er nog nooit zoveel vis geweest als nu. Dat is toch super goed?’

Garnalen vissen

Seizoensvis

‘Garnalen zijn er het hele jaar door, steeds op een andere plek. Je vist met de garnalen mee. In het voorjaar zijn de garnalen bijvoorbeeld veel dichter bij de kust. Niet alleen garnalen, maar heel veel vis wordt tegenwoordig het hele jaar door gevangen, dat is echt funest voor de vis. Er zou veel meer met de seizoenen moeten worden gevist. Bijvoorbeeld schol, die is in januari heel mager en ze moeten ook tijd hebben om hun kuit te kunnen leggen, dan moet er gewoon even helemaal niet op schol worden gevist. Toch is er het hele jaar door vraag naar, dat is echt slecht. De beste restaurants, zijn de restaurants die werken met seizoensproducten. Het is ook gewoon niet goed om het hele jaar door dezelfde vis op het menu te hebben staan, of vis het hele jaar beschikbaar in de diepvries. De vis is dan van slechte kwaliteit.’

Geen echte viseters

‘Nederland eet veel te weinig vis. Of nouja, er wordt wel vis gegeten, maar de meeste Nederlanders zijn geen echte viseters. Laatst was er een groep Chinezen hier, die namen al die rauwe ongekookte garnalen zo mee! We hebben hier in de Waddenzee bijvoorbeeld schar en schol, echt hartstikke lekker, maar de mensen eten het niet. De productkennis mist bijvoorbeeld ook bij veel horeca mensen. Zit je hier aan de haven in een visrestaurant, staat er tilapia op het menu. Dat slaat toch helemaal nergens op? Ik durf te zeggen dat we hier in de Waddenzee echt top producten hebben! En dan eten veel Nederlanders wel vissen uit die vervuilde Mekong Delta uit Vietnam…’

De vangst

Vangst van vandaag

Ondertussen worden de netten weer opgehaald, terwijl de meeuwen ook een hapje proberen mee te pikken. Roland laat de netten, die volgens Frido goed vol zitten, zakken boven een grote bak en laat de vangst naar beneden storten.

Sorteren van de vangst

Naast de garnalen zijn er ook flink wat krabben, visjes, zeesterren en stukken hout gevangen. De vangst wordt in een grote soort centrifuge gesorteerd en de vissen en krabben gaan levend weer terug de zee in. De garnalen worden altijd direct aan boord gekookt en trekken meteen mooi krom.

Het koken van de garnalen

Van zee naar Marokko

Wanneer ze weer aan land komen gaan de garnalen meteen naar de visafslag, waar ze worden gesorteerd op grootte. ‘Er worden dan eerst conserveermiddelen aan toegevoegd. Dit verandert de smaak, maar is wel noodzakelijk. Wanneer de garnalen zijn verkocht gaan de meesten naar Marokko om daar gepeld te worden. Vroeger werd er gepeld in Polen of Rusland, maar zelfs dat is nu te duur geworden. In Marokko wordt wel heel goed gepeld. Ze willen ook weer een pel centrum in Nederland gaan opzetten de komende tien jaar, maar dan met robots. Na de vangst duurt het ongeveer twee weken totdat de garnalen in de winkel liggen, maar dan heb je wel echt een heel goed product.‘

Gekookte garnalen

Pellen en smullen

Dan is het tijd geworden om te pellen! We willen die super verse garnalen wel even proeven natuurlijk. Jammer genoeg is die pelrobot er nog niet, want ik kan je wel vertellen dat het geen leuk klusje is. Veel werk, voor een klein hapje garnaal. Maar goed, wie iets lekkers wil eten, moet er iets voor over hebben. Lees hier hoe de garnalen volgens de vissers gepeld moeten worden en hoe Frido ze het liefste eet.

Garnalen pellen

Zo’n twee uur na vertrek heeft Frido de boot weer behendig tussen de andere schepen ‘geparkeerd’. Het zonnetje is inmiddels lekker gaan schijnen en met een zak verser dan verse garnalen en de wijze woorden van Frido in m’n achterhoofd ga ik voldaan weer van boord om de rest van Texel te ontdekken.

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18 Comments

  • Jurre says:

    Het is en mooi stuk geworden met mooie foto’s! Ik zal je verhalen in de gaten blijven houden. Leuk om je even gesproken te spreken op de boot en happy blogging!! Groeten, Jurre

  • Sandra says:

    Thanks Jurre! Leuk dat je het stuk echt even hebt opgezocht!

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